Composting is considered the more efficient process for treatment and stabilization of organic wastes to produce at acceptable cost a product hygienic and useful.
Given the growing concern about the problems of environmental pollution associated with the scarcity of natural resources, the ideal solution for the organic fraction of solid waste would be the stabilization of these through controlled biological processes, allowing the recycling of nutrients and use organic matter.
Public solid waste generate a considerable amount of vegetal material that can be used for composting and can contribute significantly in reducing the damage caused by disorderly arrangement of these urban waste, reducing the pressure on natural resources. This procedure allows the production of compost for use in agricultural areas, seedling production and landscaping because recycles the nutrients present in these materials.
Given the lack of new areas for deployment of landfills and the need to prolong the lifetime of them, the factor that today presents itself also as a strong argument for the implementation of composting and recycling systems is minimizing the amount of solid waste to be disposed in these deposits.
Another factor environmental concerns seedling production, planting trees in urban areas and the construction or renovation of flower beds for gardening in public areas.
The soil for such purposes is usually imported wildlands and rural surrounding metropolitan, and sold under the name of fertilized soil, i.e. it is done a mixture of this mineral soil with organic fertilizer.
The use of this residues may serve as a basis for: while it is given a destination to use a material that have environmentally sustainable features and today is dumped in landfills and dumps, contributing to environmental problems, it concurrently represents good savings to the public purse.
Traditionally, the materials composted are of agricultural origin. This type of material is generally free of contaminants and, when properly composted, produces good quality organic fertilizer and suitable for use in the fields. However, currently, the compound can be produced other organic sources such as:
- Waste agricultural or food industries. The carbon / nitrogen rate (C / N) can vary greatly. Leguminosae are rich sources of N and grasses in C. The mixture of these two types of material is almost always appropriate.
- Wastes of horticulture, arboriculture, landscaping companies, pruning and urban gardening are organic raw materials.